Learn About our Turn-Key Approach

We make it easy for physicians to adopt a wide range of orthobiologics

Greyledge Technologies has created a technology platform that allows physicians the opportunity to integrate quantitative, PRP and BMCC biologic preparations into their practice. The process relies on the use of a controlled laboratory setting, coupled with a fully documented and validated sample analysis. Validation of the analytical instrumentation is achieved by extensive internal testing, including standardized samples from the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Greyledge offers a turn-key approach to facilitate physician adoption of a wide range of orthobiologics.

PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP)

Produced when whole blood is separated into 3 layers: RBCs (red blood cells), Buffy Coat (platelets and white blood cells) and Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP). Our PRP products are obtained by centrifugation of the whole blood, followed by collection of the autologous platelets. Greyledge’s process can be customized to target a specific concentration of platelets, with or without WBCs, and depleted of RBCs.

Implantation of PRP into damaged or diseased tissue induces platelets to release concentrated healing proteins and growth factors, which is thought to initiate a regenerative or healing response at the cellular level. Cytokines in PRP have specific activity ranges and optimal target ranges (Evans, 1998). Based on current literature, optimal platelet concentrations should fall between 1 – 1.5 Million Platelets/microliter (Weibrich, 2004; Zechner, 2003; Marx, 1998). There are reports in the scientific literature that suggest PRP preparations with very high platelet concentrations may produce deleterious outcomes at the treatment site (de Mos, 2008; Marx, 1998; Weibrich, 2004).

Greyledge’s novel approach to processing and sample analysis assure every biologic preparation will fall within the specified target range (Mishra, et al. 2014), with the capability of adjusting component  concentration to any desired range for the purposes of supporting natural healing or in a research study, at the discretion of the physician. Physiologic levels of growth factors reported in the research literature to be present in PRP include (but are not limited to):

PDGF (Platelet Derived GF)
TGF β1/TGF β2 (Transforming GF beta)
IGF-1 (Insulin-like GF1)
FGF (Fibroblast GF)

VEGF (Vascular Endothelial GF)
EGF (Epidermal GF)
CTGF (Connective Tissue GF) (Cicha, 2004)

BONE MARROW CELL CONCENTRATE (BMCC)

Produced by harvesting bone marrow (along with blood) from a needle aspiration in the iliac crest. Platelets and WBCs (including a variety of progenitor cells, such as multipotent stem cells like hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs] and mesenchymal stem cells [MSCs]) can be concentrated and harvested though processing protocols similar to PRP. The BMCC preparation contains all of the bio-active elements of PRP with the addition of concentrated progenitor cells, stem cells and other adult cells (e.g., monocytes).

Activated PRP Matrix

PRP can be treated as was described above for PPP. But there are platelets present in PRP that contribute to the formation of a fibrin matrix to stimulate cellular up-regulation and proliferation. The platelets will be entrapped within the matrix and could release growth factors over an extended period of time.

Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP)

An acellular blood fraction (55% of blood volume, 91% water content) with residual proteins (7% fibrinogen, albumin, globulin), 2% nutrients (amino acids, glucose electrolytes) and a small residual platelet fraction. PPP can be used to dilute hyper-concentrated PRP to any target platelet concentration. PPP also has been reported to be used in the generation of an acellular fibrin matrix.

Activated PPP Fibrin Matrix

Activated PPP Fibrin Matrix Fibrinogen protein in PPP can be activated by calcium chloride reversal of anti-coagulation to induce cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, which cross-links to form a fibrin matrix/scaffold. It has been reported that matrices can be implanted and are thought to act as a scaffold to which native or implanted cells can attach and proliferate to form new tissue. (Kumar and Chapman, 2008)

Activated BMCC Matrix

Similar to activated PRP or PPP matrix. Activation is accomplished by reversal of anti-coagulation with calcium chloride, which stimulates matrix formation and platelet release of growth factors in the presence of progenitor and stem cells. This type of preparation provides the three components (cells, signals and scaffolds) that support repair and regeneration.

Activated Platelet Poor Plasma

Simulating normal healing properties of blood, calcium chloride can reverse the effect of anti-coagulated PPP, allowing it to form a clot, which is triggered by the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin via the activity of thrombin (itself activated from prothrombin). Removal of the clot leaves serum and low concentrations of thrombin and other blood activation proteins, which can be combined with PRP to further initiate and regulate release of platelet growth factors to stimulate a regenerative response. (Kumar and Chapman, 2008)

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP)

Produced when whole blood is separated into 3 layers: RBCs (red blood cells), Buffy Coat (platelets and white blood cells) and Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP). Our PRP products are obtained by centrifugation of the whole blood, followed by collection of the autologous platelets. Greyledge’s process can be customized to target a specific concentration of platelets, with or without WBCs, and depleted of RBCs.

Implantation of PRP into damaged or diseased tissue induces platelets to release concentrated healing proteins and growth factors, which is thought to initiate a regenerative or healing response at the cellular level. Cytokines in PRP have specific activity ranges and optimal target ranges (Evans, 1998). Based on current literature, optimal platelet concentrations should fall between 1 – 1.5 Million Platelets/microliter (Weibrich, 2004; Zechner, 2003; Marx, 1998). There are reports in the scientific literature that suggest PRP preparations with very high platelet concentrations may produce deleterious outcomes at the treatment site (de Mos, 2008; Marx, 1998; Weibrich, 2004).

Greyledge’s novel approach to processing and sample analysis assure every biologic preparation will fall within the specified target range (Mishra, et al. 2014), with the capability of adjusting component  concentration to any desired range for the purposes of supporting natural healing or in a research study, at the discretion of the physician. Physiologic levels of growth factors reported in the research literature to be present in PRP include (but are not limited to):

PDGF (Platelet Derived GF)
TGF β1/TGF β2 (Transforming GF beta)
IGF-1 (Insulin-like GF1)
FGF (Fibroblast GF)

VEGF (Vascular Endothelial GF)
EGF (Epidermal GF)
CTGF (Connective Tissue GF) (Cicha, 2004)

Platelet Poor Plasma (PPP)

An acellular blood fraction (55% of blood volume, 91% water content) with residual proteins (7% fibrinogen, albumin, globulin), 2% nutrients (amino acids, glucose electrolytes) and a small residual platelet fraction. PPP can be used to dilute hyper-concentrated PRP to any target platelet concentration. PPP also has been reported to be used in the generation of an acellular fibrin matrix.

Activated Platelet Poor Plasma

Simulating normal healing properties of blood, calcium chloride can reverse the effect of anti-coagulated PPP, allowing it to form a clot, which is triggered by the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin via the activity of thrombin (itself activated from prothrombin). Removal of the clot leaves serum and low concentrations of thrombin and other blood activation proteins, which can be combined with PRP to further initiate and regulate release of platelet growth factors to stimulate a regenerative response. (Kumar and Chapman, 2008)

Activated PPP Fibrin Matrix

Activated PPP Fibrin Matrix Fibrinogen protein in PPP can be activated by calcium chloride reversal of anti-coagulation to induce cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, which cross-links to form a fibrin matrix/scaffold. It has been reported that matrices can be implanted and are thought to act as a scaffold to which native or implanted cells can attach and proliferate to form new tissue. (Kumar and Chapman, 2008)

Activated PRP Matrix

PRP can be treated as was described above for PPP. But there are platelets present in PRP that contribute to the formation of a fibrin matrix to stimulate cellular up-regulation and proliferation. The platelets will be entrapped within the matrix and could release growth factors over an extended period of time.

Bone Marrow Cell Concentrate (BMCC)

Produced by harvesting bone marrow (along with blood) from a needle aspiration in the iliac crest. Platelets and WBCs (including a variety of progenitor cells, such as multipotent stem cells like hematopoietic stem cells [HSCs] and mesenchymal stem cells [MSCs]) can be concentrated and harvested though processing protocols similar to PRP. The BMCC preparation contains all of the bio-active elements of PRP with the addition of concentrated progenitor cells, stem cells and other adult cells (e.g., monocytes).

Activated BMCC Matrix

Similar to activated PRP or PPP matrix. Activation is accomplished by reversal of anti-coagulation with calcium chloride, which stimulates matrix formation and platelet release of growth factors in the presence of progenitor and stem cells. This type of preparation provides the three components (cells, signals and scaffolds) that support repair and regeneration.

Learn About Our Process

Our goal is to provide physicians with the technology and quality system to treat patients with a variety of autologous biologic preparations.