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There are numerous reports on potential applications for PRP and BMCC in the basic science and clinical research literature, and that body of evidence continues to grow. Unfortunately, a significant majority of both clinical utilization and research of PRP and BMC used products which had very little quality control and very few cell counts.
At Greyledge, we believe that not knowing exactly what is being put into a patient during a cell therapy is unacceptable. Knowing these cell counts precisely and consistently in our products has created a tremendous opportunity for Greyldge to research the relationship between all of the cells and variables in these treatments to patient outcomes in a continual learning model. Only through careful measurement, data collection and study of dose response relationships can we learn to further optimize and customize our product for both the patient being treated and the problem we are targeting.

Greyledge has created a novel web-based data collection and management system that allows our clinical partners to capture this critical data before, during and after treatment. Data from our products and patient reported results of treatment can then be analyzed through application of AI (artificial intelligence) and ML (machine learning) algorithms that will speed up and enhance our ability to learn from every product made and every patient treated to advance the field of cellular therapies and apply what we learn to continually make our products and the delivery of them better in time.

Below is a list of possible illnesses and injuries where autologous preparations have been reported for treating a wide variety of pathologies with links to references provided.

Osteoarthritic Joint Pain

Joint Injection

Kon E, et al. (2010) Platelet-rich plasma: intra-articular knee injections produced favorable results on degenerative cartilage lesions. in a new tab)

Khoshbin  A, et al. (2013)  The efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review with quantitative synthesis. in a new tab)

Sánchez M, et al. (2012) Ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hip. in a new tab)

Centeno C, et al. (2016)  A dose response analysis of a specific bone marrow concentrate treatment protocol for knee osteoarthritis. in a new tab)/

In Conjunction with Surgical Treatment

Fortier LA, et al. (2010) Concentrated bone marrow aspirate improves full-thickness cartilage repair compared with microfracture in an equine model. in a new tab)

Milano G, et al. (2010) The effect of platelet rich plasma combined with microfractures on the treatment of chondral defects: an experimental study in a sheep model. in a new tab)

Buda R, et al. (2015) One-step bone marrow-derived cell transplantation in talar osteochondral lesions: mid-term results. in a new tab)

Meniscus or Ligament Injuries

Foster TE, et al. (2009) Platelet-rich plasma: from basic science to clinical application. in a new tab)

Murray MM, et al. (2009) Enhanced histologic repair in a central wound in the anterior cruciate ligament with a collagen–platelet-rich plasma scaffold. in a new tab)

Braun HJ, et al. (2013) The Use of PRP in ligament and meniscal healing. in a new tab)

Yu H, et al. (2015) Meniscus repair using mesenchymal stem cells – a comprehensive review. in a new tab)

Cook JL, et al. (2016) Multiple injections of leukoreduced platelet rich plasma reduce pain and functional impairment in a canine model of ACL and meniscal deficiency. in a new tab)

Muscle and Tendon Injuries

Lateral Epicondylitis

Peerbooms JC, (2010) Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-Year follow-up. in a new tab)

Gosens T, et al. (2011) Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up. in a new tab)

Mishra A, et al. (2014) Efficacy of platelet-rich plasma for chronic tennis elbow: a double-blind, prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial of 230 patients. in a new tab)

Patellar Tendonitis

Cervellin M, et al. (2012) Autologous platelet-rich plasma gel to reduce donor-site morbidity after patellar tendon graft harvesting for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a randomized, controlled clinical study. in a new tab)

Di Matteo B, et al. (2015) Platelet-rich plasma: evidence for the treatment of patellar and Achilles tendinopathy—a systematic review. in a new tab)

Pascual-Garrido C, et al. (2012) Treatment of chronic patellar tendinopathy with autologous bone marrow stem cells: a 5-year followup. in a new tab)

Rotator Cuff Tears

Randelli P, et al. (2011) Platelet rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prospective RCT study, 2-year follow-up. in a new tab)

Hernigou P, et al. (2014) Biologic augmentation of rotator cuff repair with mesenchymal stem cells during arthroscopy improves healing and prevents further tears: a case-controlled study. in a new tab)

Achilles Tendinopathy

Sanchez M, et al. (2007) Comparison of surgically repaired Achilles tendon tears using platelet rich fibrin matrices. in a new tab)

Stein BE, et al. (2015) Outcomes of acute Achilles tendon rupture repair with bone marrow aspirate concentrate augmentation. in a new tab)


Galasso O, et al. (2008) Expandable intramedullary nailing and platelet rich plasma to treat long bone non-unions. in a new tab)


Sampson S, et al. (2008) Platelet rich plasma injection grafts for musculoskeletal injuries: a review. in a new tab)


Pettine K, et al. (2015) Percutaneous Injection of Autologous Bone Marrow Concentrate Cells Significantly Reduces Lumbar Discogenic Pain Through 12 Months.;jsessionid=4B093BB048A7B7E6ED042103925DBB2A.f03t02(opens in a new tab)

Pettine K, et al. (2016) Treatment of discogenic back pain with autologous bone marrow concentrate injection with minimum two year follow-up. in a new tab)

Monfett M, et al. (2016) Intradiscal platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for discogenic low back pain: an update. in a new tab)

Cosmetic Surgery

Man D, et al. (2001) The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma (platelet gel) and autologous platelet-poor plasma (fibrin glue) in cosmetic surgery. in a new tab)

Cervelli V, et al. (2009) Application of platelet-rich plasma in plastic surgery: clinical and in-vitro evaluation. in a new tab)

Redaelli A, et al. (2010) Face and neck revitalization with platelet-rich plasma (PRP): clinical outcome in a series of 23 consecutively treated patients. in a new tab)

Sclafani AP, and SA McCormick. (2012)  Induction of dermal collagenesis, angiogenesis, and adipogenesis in human skin by injection of platelet-rich fibrin matrix. in a new tab)


Lee JW, et al. (2011) The Efficacy of autologous platelet rich plasma combined with ablative carbon dioxide fractional resurfacing for acne scars: A Simultaneous Split-Face Trial. in a new tab)

Cho JM, et al. (2011) Effect of platelet-rich plasma on ultraviolet b-induced skin wrinkles in nude mice. in a new tab)

Shin MK, et al. (2012) Platelet-rich plasma combined with fractional laser therapy for skin rejuvenation. in a new tab)

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Tateishi-Yuyama  E, et al. (2002) Therapeutic angiogenesis for patients with limb ischemia by autologous transplantation of bone-marrow cells: a pilot study and a randomized controlled trial. in a new tab)

Bartsch T, et al. (2007) Transplantation of autologous mononuclear bone marrow stem cells in patients with peripheral arterial disease (the TAM-PAD study). in a new tab)

Amann B, et al. (2009) Autologous bone marrow cell transplantation increases leg perfusion and reduces amputations in patients with advanced critical limb ischemia due to peripheral artery disease. in a new tab)

Fadnini GP, et al. (2010) Autologous stem cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease: Meta-analysis and systemic review of the literature. in a new tab)

Molavi B, et al. (2016) Safety and Efficacy of Repeated Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Therapy in Patients with Critical Limb Ischemia in a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. in a new tab)

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

Marx RE. Platelet-rich plasma: evidence to support its use. in a new tab)

Sammartino G, et al. (2005) Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma in periodontal defect treatment after extraction of impacted mandibular third molars. in a new tab)

Bajaj P, et al. (2013) Comparative evaluation of autologous platelet-rich fibrin and platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of mandibular degree II furcation defects: a randomized controlled clinical trial. in a new tab)

Wound Care

Hom DB, et al. (2007) The healing effects of autologous platelet gel on acute human skins wounds. in a new tab)

Driver VR, et al. (2006) A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of autologous platelet-rich plasma gel for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. in a new tab)

Kazakos K, et al. (2009) The use of autologous PRP gel as an aid in the management of trauma wounds. in a new tab)

Carter MJ, et al. (2011) Use of platelet-rich plasma gel on wound healing: a systematic review and meta-analysis. in a new tab)

Saad Setta, H, et al. (2011) Platelet-rich plasma versus platelet-poor plasma in the management of chronic diabetic foot ulcers: a comparative study. in a new tab)

Dabiri G, et al. (2013) The emerging use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of human chronic wounds. in a new tab)

Additional References

Murphy M, et al. (2013) Mesenchymal stem cells: environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine. in a new tab)

Cassano JM, et al. (2016) Bone marrow concentrate and platelet-rich plasma differ in cell distribution and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist protein concentration. in a new tab)

Wang SW, et al. (2014) Identification of α2-Macroglobulin as a Master Inhibitor of Cartilage-Degrading Factors That Attenuates the Progression of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis. in a new tab)

Cicha I, et al. (2004) Activated human platelets release connective tissue growth factor. in a new tab)

De Mos M, et al. (2008) Can platelet-rich plasma enhance tendon repair? in a new tab)

Evans, C. (1999) Cytokines and the role they play in the healing of ligaments and tendons. in a new tab)

Kumar V, and JR Chapman. (2008) Autologous thrombin: intraoperative production from whole blood. in a new tab)

Marx RE, et al. (1998) Platelet-rich plasma: growth factor enhancement for bone grafts. in a new tab)

Weibrich G, et al. (2004) Effect of platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma on the peri-implant bone regeneration. in a new tab)

Zechner W, et al. (2003) Influence of platelet-rich plasma on osseus healing of dental implants: a histologic and histomorphometric study in minipigs. in a new tab)

Woodell-May J, et al. (2011) Autologous protein solution inhibits MMP-13 production by IL-1β and TNFα-stimulated human articular chondrocytes. in a new tab)

van Buul GM, et al. (2011) Platelet-rich plasma releasate inhibits inflammatory processes in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. in a new tab)